Saturday, February 27, 2010

2/28/10 Dan 10-12

Will continue our discussion on the end of Chap 9 and then begin on Chap 10.

Chap 10: This chapter is a prelude to 11 and 12. It is again focused on Israel and the return to their homeland.

This third year of Cyrus is 536BC. Daniel is about 84 years old.

He has been fasting and praying for three weeks.

He had company for a short time. I'm not sure hy they left, but Daniel was left alone.

I. First note, V12 applied your mind Heb (gave your heart). Daniel was aware I believe

v 20 -The Prince of Persia: Refer to Eph 1 & 6. There is a very weak argument that these "forces" were human. That is to say Michael and Gabriel were trying to intervene on behalf of the exiles. There return to Israel was still in question, See Ezra 4 and the fact that Cyrus's son Cambyses was opposed to the exiles leaving. This argument is extremely weak in that the text does not agree in any manner with that interpretation.

v 21 Michael- The "prince" of Israel.

There can be no misunderstanding about what Daniel wrote here. The implication and literal meaning is that there are "princes" at work behind these nations or "peoples". You can call them Demons or "fallen" angels, due to the fact that they are fighting with God's "angels". The best understanding is written by Paul in Eph 6:12. There is a spiritual realm in which we have very little understanding, we can reason or suppose but it has not been revealed to us for a good reason.

II. The message Chap 11

A. 3 more "Kings".

Here are the Kings of the Persian Empire:

Teispes of Anshan, son of Achaemenes
Cyrus I of Anshan, son of Teispes
Cambyses I of Anshan, son of Cyrus I
Cyrus II, the Great, son of Cambyses I, ruled from c.550-530 BCE E(ruler of Anshan c. 559 BCE – conquered Media 550 BCE)
Cambyses II, son of Cyrus the Great, ruled 529-522 BCE
Smerdis (Bardiya), alleged son of Cyrus the Great, ruled 522 BCE (Possibly a usurper)
Darius I the Great, brother-in-law of Smerdis and grandson of Arsames, ruled 521-486 BCE
Xerxes I the Great, son of Darius I, ruled 485-465 BCE
Artaxerxes I Longimanus, son of Xerxes I, ruled 465-424 BCE
Xerxes II, son of Artaxerxes I, ruled 424 BCE
Sogdianus, half-brother and rival of Xerxes II, ruled 424-423 BCE
Darius II Nothus, half-brother and rival of Xerxes II, ruled 423-405 BCE
Artaxerxes II Mnemon, son of Darius II, ruled 404-359 BCE (see also Xenophon)
Artaxerxes III Ochus, son of Artaxerxes II, ruled 358-338 BCE
Artaxerxes IV Arses, son of Artaxerxes III, ruled 338-336 BCE
Darius III Codomannus, great-grandson of Darius II, ruled 336-330 BCE

It is important to not that the text does not say that there will be four kings of Persia, however it refers to the next 4, Cambyses II, Darius I the Great, Smerdis and Xerxes I the Great. We can debate over the quick "rule" of Smerdis (Bardiya). There are many interesting stories here, but the reality is he ruled a few months and did some interesting things before Darius killed him.

Saturday, February 13, 2010

2-14-10 Daniel Chap 9

First, I want to point out 2 passages to start the lesson;

1. Jer 25:11-14 (the 70 years 605-539?)

2. 2 Thess 2:2-12 Paul speaking about the "return of Christ"

A. Daniels Prayer: First note the process. This is not a short prayer it is pure supplication, and worship.
This is a process of fasting, reflection and prayer over several days. What would happen now if we practiced this. What would this look like today?

B. Daniel's 70 weeks Dan 9:20-

Again, I believe that there can be no other way to see this than through a pre-millenial view. I would suggest strongly that it doesn't make sense from any other perspective.

1. Daniel's prayers are answered 20-21, note the entrance of Gabriel. Also the weariness at the end of verse 21.

2. "understanding and a vision" for God's People (Jews) and the "holy mountain" Jerusalem.

3. It is important to not why the "7s" are used. It is called a heptads. Old Law demanded every seven years was a Sabbath rest year. Seven "sevens" was a Jubilee. Seventy "sevens" is a span of 490 years.

4. It must be noted that this "vision" or prophecy is for the city of Jerusalem and the Jews. It can be interpreted no other way.

5 Jer. 25:11 noted seventy years for Judah's captivity. See also 2 Chron 36:21 and of course Ezra 1.

6. Verse 24 Consider that this is a summary of God's plan. If you will note each passage, it reaches back to the beginning, it puts an end to sin through atonement, bring about his kingdom as revealed through the prophecy given to the prophets ending with his son the messiah.

7. The seven weeks-49 only depends on when you start it. I add the following notes to better explain why it begins on March 5, 444BC.

The 70 "sevens" would begin, Gabriel said, with the issuing of the decree to restore and rebuild Jerusalem. This decree was the fourth of four decrees made by Persian rulers in reference to the Jews. The first was Cyrus’ decree in 538 b.c. (2 Chron. 36:22-23; Ezra 1:1-4; 5:13). The second was the decree of Darius I (522-486) in 520 b.c. (Ezra 6:1, 6-12). This decree actually was a confirmation of the first decree. The third was the decree of Artaxerxes Longimanus (464-424) in 457 b.c. (Ezra 7:11-26). The first two decrees pertain to the rebuilding of the temple in Jerusalem and the third relates to finances for animal sacrifices at the temple. These three say nothing about the rebuilding of the city itself. Since an unwalled city was no threat to a military power, a religious temple could be rebuilt without jeopardizing the military authority of those granting permission to rebuild it. No one of these three decrees, then, was the decree that formed the beginning of the 70 sevens.

The final decree:

The fourth decree was also by Artaxerxes Longimanus, issued on March 5, 444 b.c. (Neh. 2:1-8). On that occasion Artaxerxes granted the Jews permission to rebuild Jerusalem’s city walls. This decree is the one referred to in Daniel 9:25.

Now I know the question your asking and here ya go:

The 483 Years in the Jewish and Gregorian Calendars :
Jewish Calendar (360 days per year *) Gregorian Calendar (365 days a year)
(7×7) + (62×7) years = 483 years
483x360=173,880 days

444 B.C. to A.D. 33 = 476 years †

476 years× 365 =173,740

173,740 days+ 116 days in leap years ‡
24 days (March 5–March 30)
173,880 days

Go figure

B. The 490 years divided

1. 49 years for rebuilding of temple. give or take Ezra explains the details.
2. 62 "sevens" 434 years. We can argue the day of Christ's triumphal entry or his crucifiction based on census data from Roman manuscripts, but nevertheless its AD 33.

Now the important issue arises in how we view this passage.

C. Verse 26 says

Now after the sixty-two weeks,
an anointed one will be cut off and have nothing.
As for the city and the sanctuary,
the people of the coming prince will destroy them.
But his end will come speedily like a flood.
Until the end of the war that has been decreed
there will be destruction.

Note Matt 16:18
and Matt 21:42-43

The annointed one was cut off after the "62 "sevens"
This is the death of the messiah.
The city and the Sanctuary was destroyed by the coming prince (Romans/ Titus Note Dan 7:8 the little horn) AD70....Note the people of the coming prince.

I strongly believe that the break or gap between verse 26-27 is where we are now, it is the "church age" as so many like to call it, the time of the gospel to spread among all nations and peoples. Just read the new testament.

D. Verse 27 The last 7 weeks or the 70th "seven"

2 Thess 2:2 Paul writes:

2 Now regarding the arrival of our Lord Jesus Christ and our being gathered to be with him, we ask you, brothers and sisters, 2 not to be easily shaken from your composure or disturbed by any kind of spirit or message or letter allegedly from us, to the effect that the day of the Lord is already here. 3 Let no one deceive you in any way. For that day will not arrive until the rebellion comes and the man of lawlessness is revealed, the son of destruction. 4 He opposes and exalts himself above every so-called god or object of worship, and as a result he takes his seat in God’s temple, displaying himself as God. 5 Surely you recall that I used to tell you these things while I was still with you. 6 And so you know what holds him back, so that he will be revealed in his own time. 7 For the hidden power of lawlessness is already at work. However, the one who holds him back will do so until he is taken out of the way, 8 and then the lawless one will be revealed, whom the Lord will destroy by the breath of his mouth and wipe out by the manifestation of his arrival. 9 The arrival of the lawless one will be by Satan’s working with all kinds of miracles and signs and false wonders, 10 and with every kind of evil deception directed against those who are perishing, because they found no place in their hearts for the truth so as to be saved. 11 Consequently God sends on them a deluding influence so that they will believe what is false. 12 And so all of them who have not believed the truth but have delighted in evil will be condemned.

D contd
a. Who is the "he"? one week literally is "one seven"
b. Middle of that week (3 and 1 half years).
c. He will stop the sacrifices (how can this be Ephinanes IV)
d. Unfortunately you have to go to Revelation to get the rest of the story.

Saturday, February 6, 2010

Ch. 8 / 9 - More Prophecies

Hello everyone. I'm back! Charlie is away this week so I will be leading our discussion on Sunday.

Last week I believe we made it through 8:14. Thus, this week we will pick it up at 8:15 and hopefully make it through chapter 9. Before I dive into the text I thought it might be appropriate and helpful to take a step back and review what we've covered in the first 7 and 1/2 chapters. In doing so I also want to take a 30,000 foot view of the ground we've covered. Hopefully this will give us a broader perspective and make the text in the last half of chapter 8 and the text in chapter 9 easier to understand.

Let's get started.

I. Overview and Review

A. Daniel - Who is he?
1. Daniel belonged to those Jews who had been led away captive to Babylon
at the first siege of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar in the year 605 ( compare Dan. 1:1-2 with 2 Kings 24:1 and 2 Chron. 36:6-7).
2. Comes to Bablyon at a young age, probably a teenager.
3. Quickly recognized by Babylonian rulers as a leader. He and his friends are indoctrinated in the ways of the Babylonians.
B. Book of Daniel
1. First 6 chapters tell Daniel's story relative to his life in Babylon
2. Chapters 7 - 12 are prophetic.
3. Chapter 7 contains a second revelation on the four world empires. According to Arend Remmers in his commentary, The Prophet Daniel, this is God's view of the four world empires (Babylon, Persia, Greece, and Rome). Compare this to Nebuchadnezzar's human view in his dream captured in Chapter 2. (See insert above)

4. Chapter 8 tells us of the second and third empire (Persia and Greece)

5. Chapter 9 is about the end of the Babylonian exile and the coming Messiah

II. Second Half of Chapter 8

A. Recall first half (first 14 verses) is Daniel telling us his vision containing farm animals, a ram and a goat.

B. Second half (v.15 forward) is Gabriel interpreting the vision for Daniel.

1. Gabriel describes Daniels vision as being for "the time of the end." (v.17)

2. Ram with two horns represents the Medo-Persian empire.

a. one horn represents King of Media, second horn is King of Persia

3. Male goat represents King of Greece

a. great horn is first king (Alexander).

b. 4 kings supplant first king (Egypt, Asia, Macedonia, Syria)

4. 4 kingdoms supplanted by Rome. Last Grecian empire ruler was Antiochus Epiphanes

a. described in v.23-25

b. Charlie has in past weeks spoken extensively about him

5. in v. 26 Gabriel confirms the accuracy of Daniels vision regarding the 2300 evenings and mornings.

III. Chapter 9 - Three Part: 70 Years, A Prayer of Supplication, and 70 Weeks Prophecy

A. v.1-2 - Daniel is reading Jeremiah and determines 70 years must pass before Jews can return home.

1. This is said to occur in the first year of Darius's rein. That would make it 7 years after the vision described in chapter 8.

2. Daniels reading and meditation leads him to pray for his people and their sins.

B. v.3-19 - Prayer of Supplication

1. Daniel prays for sins of his people (i.e., why they are in exile)

2. Prays for God to once again shine favor on his desolated sanctuary (Jerusalem)

C. The Seventy Weeks

1. OK folks here is where it gets interesting

2. Seventy week prophecy concerns the timing of the appearance of the Messiah.

3. Seventy weeks actually represents (70 x 7) 490 years.

4. Starting point for counting the 490 years is commandment to rebuild temple (approx. 445 BC)

5. Here I am going to rely heavily on the position held by Arend Remmers.

a. 70 year weeks fall into 3 periods

1. 7 weeks (49 years)

2. 62 weeks (434 years)

3. 1 week (7 years)

b. 49 years - Jerusalem and the temple are rebuilt (see Nehemiah)

c. 434 years - takes us up through Maccabeeian revolt and Roman rule to AD 32/33

1. we all know what happened then...Jesus died on cross and was resurrected. "an anointed one shall be cut off and shall having nothing."

2. v. 26 foretells second destruction of the temple

d. Last seven years (or 70th week)

1. This is where it gets very interesting. According to Remmer (pre-millenial view) the 70th week doesn't immediately follow the 69th week.

2. 70th week follows "time of grace" - we're currently living in this time

3. 70th week starts after the rapture and is broken into two 3 1/2 periods.

4. First 3 1/2 year period is first half of tribulation period. Antichrist is friendly towards Israel and Jews

5. Second 3 1/2 period is last half of the tribulation period. Antichrist takes over Jerusalem, desecrates temple

6. End of 70th week - Our Lord and Savior returns.

7. A-millenial view

a. "prince who is to come" is Antiochus Epiphanes

b. "annointed one who is cut off" is high priest Onias III

c. First 3 1/2 year period of covenant is between Hellenizing Jews and Antiochus

d. Second 3 1/2 year period all sacrifice and offering ceases. Jews not allowed to worship their God.

e. 7 year period ends with Maccabeean revolt. Temple is purified and restored.